Each of the social sciences (Anthropology, Economics, Political Science, Social Psychology, and Sociology) and related fields (Geography, History, Communication, Linguistics, Management Science) witnessed the introduction of computation into its own frontiers of theory and research within a few years. However, formal training in computation did not begin until decades later through high-level software packages for statistical applications (SPSS, SAS, Stata), followed by true programming languages (S and R), as well as computational applications to content analysis, network models, and social simulations. Many of these computational contributions will be examined in subsequent chapters of this book.

Those were the origins of CSS, a fledging field that has evolved from pioneering roots that began with primitive algorithms running on archaic computers with (mostly) historical interest, to today’s object-oriented models running on modern and more powerful computers that would have seemed like science fiction even to Isaac Asimov’s psychohistorian Hari (“The Raven”) Seldon in Foundations. What about the future? The future of CSS will be written in the language of advanced distributed computing, graphic processing units (GPU), quantum computing, and other information technologies still at the frontiers of computational science.